Baroque

The last great defense effort of the Außerfern was the building of the „Fortress at the Schlosskopf“ on the so called „Hornberg“, that towered the Ehrenberg castle. Today, we know it as the „Großer Schlossberg“. As early as 1645, master builder Elias Gumpp made references to the strategic point. The experiences of the year of 1703, when cannons were carried onto the Hornberg from Rieden to retake the fortress of Ehrenberg below, revived these old plans. The construction began in 1726 under the supervision of imperial engineers, yet it was ceased due to unknown reasons.

On the 28th of August 1733, a solemn laying of the foundation stone was conducted. Specially for this, the abbot of the St. Magnus monastery came from Füssen and consecrated the foundation stone in company of the priest of Breitenwang and the guardian of the franciscan monastery. The foundation stone had the following inscription (translation from latin): This consecrated castle enjoys the honorary title of „honour“ and „mountain“; for this, in the 23rd year of the rule of Karl VI over the Roman Empire, as his serene highness prince Franz Eugen of Savoyen was first commander of the imperial troups and the general field marshal lieutenant Johann Gaudenz of Rost was the war director of the lands in upper Austria, the canonically elected abbot of Füssen, Dominikus and fortress commander and imperial colonel at the same time, knight Andreas Johan of Pach, under the assistance of canonically elected priest Johannes Holzmann and the venerated guardian of the Reutt monastery, Bernhard Mans, lay the foundation stone.

Barracks with bombproof vaults With the expansion of the high castle, underlying bulwarks were renewed as well. Only one year later, in 1734, the first bulwark was completed: It was the bulwark, through which we step into the so called „Schlossangerl“ even today. An inscription remains, that indicates that the construction was built under the roman emperor Karl VI, of „gods graces, king of Hungary and Bohemia, archduke of Austria, duke of Burgundy and count of Tyrol.

Now, the construction proceded quickly. Until the year of 1741, the high castle was completed, save for the roof. The fortress had a fortified wall that ran around the whole mountain top, an artillery with 16 cannons and barracks with bombproof vaults. In times of piece, only a small garrison was posted to guard the cannons and the provisions. Due to the lack of a spring, a cistern needed to be dug. Word has it, that the whole construction consumed as much as three million guilders, a humongous sum, that must have been overestimated despite the size of the construction. Conveyance after 41 years. In the year of completion, in 1741, after Maria Theresia took over rule, it seemed as if this new fortress could soon achieve importance. The elector of Bavaria raised a claim to the austrian hereditary lands as well. A war followed, that was ended by the Peace of Füssen in 1745. The Ehrenberg garrison was reinforced by 400 men.

From Ehrenberg, two attacks on Hohenschwangau were undertaken in 1743, without Ehrenberg experiencing any threat of war. This giant fortress would never achieve military importance. It was abandoned 41 years later in 1782, along with all other fortresses.

Timetable

Timetable for the history 15 before Chr. Until 1814

16/15 BC Drusus and Tiberius conquer the central Alps area and the Alpine Foothills – Founding of the roman  province Rätien
ca. 45 A.D. Expansion of the roman road network in Tyrol. The Via Claudia Augusta is constructed through the Vinschgau. Roman watch towers and road stations secure this military important road.
550-600 Advance of the Bavarians into the Inn Valley and south over the Brenner
569 Advance of the Langobarden into the Etsch Valley at Trient around
590 Ingenuin as the first, validated bishop of Säben 7. and 8. century, settlement and missions of Bavarians
769 Bavarian duke Tassilo III founds Innichen Monastery for slawic missions
788 annex of the tribal duchy of Tassilo III into the Franconian Empire 2nd half of the 10th century, relocation of the seat of the bishop from Säben to Brixen
1004/1027/1091, Enfeoffment of the Trient and Brixen bishops with the counties „im Gebirge“ from the Inn Valley to the Bern (Veronese) defile 12. century, Ascend of the counts of Andechs, from Tyrol, from Eppan, and from Ulten
1190-1253 Count Albert of Tyrol – Marriage of his daughter to Otto VIII of Andechs
1248 Counts of Andechs perish – Albert III of Tyrol unites the counties in Etsch- Eisack- and Inn Valley under his rule.
1250 The Chur castle is built.
1253 The earls of Tirol die out – The new heir is the earl Meinhard von Görz
1258-1295 Complete formation of the country Tirol under Meinhard II. Von Tirol-Görz
1282 Exchange of King Rudolf I. von Habsburg with Austria and Steiermark
1286 Exchange of Meinhards II. with the duchy Kärnten
1330 Margarethe Maultasch, heir of Tirol, marries Johann Heinrich von Luxemburg.
1335 The male Meinhards die out and Tirol falls under the control of Luxemburg and Kärnten falls under the control of Habsburg
1342 Banishment of Johann Heinrichs von Luxemburg – The Wittelsbacher (Bavaria, Kurpfalz and Brandenburg) gain control of Tirol through the marriage between Ludwig and Margarethe Maultasch and the acknowledgement of the sovereignty (the “große Freiheitsbrief”)
1363 Death of Meinhards III. (son of Ludwigs and Margarethes) – Margarethe Maultasch transfers the rule over Tirol in agreement with public officials to Rudolf IV. Von Habsburg.
1363-1368 Repulsion of Bavarian attacks
1379 First country division of Habsburg – Tirol goes to Leopold III.
1386 Leopold III. falls at Sempach against the comrades in oath (Eidgenossen)
1406 New division of Habsburg's holdings – Tirol and further Austria becomes a sovereign Habsburg principality.
1406-1439 Duke Friedrich IV. “with empty pockets”
1411 Nobility outrage and Bavarian intrusion
1413/14 The courts Telvana, Castellalto, San Pietro and Ivano in the Valsugana becom Tirolian.
1414-1418 Council of Constance
1415 following condemnation of Friedrich IV. “with empty pockets” through the council of Constance – Imprisonment and escape – Farmers and citizens support the principality against the emperor and local nobility opposition – formation of a class constitution
1420 Innsbruck becomes a residence of the emperor
1446-1490 Duke (Archduke from 1477) Sigmund “der Münzreiche” (died 1496) – complete formation of the local class constitution 1453-1464 Quarrel with the Brixner bishop, cardinal Nikolaus Cusanus about sovereignty
1487 War against Venice; victory at Calliano
1487 Deprivation of power of Sigmund through the Landschaft
1490 Archduke Sigmund abdicates power over the country in favour of king Maximilian.
1490-1519 Maximilian I. (Landesfürst, King, from 1507 emperor)
1496 Congress of Glurns and Mals
1499 Swiss war and defeat of Tirol at Glurns. The famous battle at the Kalve, Maximilian arrives too late and the city Glurns is razed completely, Schluderns is raided
1500 Earls of Görz die out – Pustertal reigned by Lienz integrates into Tirol.
1504 Maximilian wins the Courts of Rattenberg, Kufstein and Kitzbühel for Tirol.
1508-1516 Maximilian wages war against Venice – the are Rovereto and Ampezzo become Tyrolean
1516 Emperor Maximilian stays at the Chur castle as guest of family Trapp. After an inheritance quarrel the Chur castle is finally given to the Trapp family. After a tournament which Maximilian, also known as the last knight, did not win, he left his tournament helmet in the Chur castle's armoury. It has remained there until today.
1511 Landlibell Maximilian's as basis of Tyrol's defence constitution.
1519 Maximilian's grandson Karl V. is elected as king.
1521/1522 Division of the county between the brothers Karl V. and Ferdinand I. - Tyrol and further Austria are given to Archduke Ferdinand's I. Austrian country (contract of Brussels)
1525 Tyrolean farmes revolt under the leadership of Michael Gaismair
1526 Micheal Gaismair's revolutionary “Landesordnung”
1532 Assasination of Gaismair – Tyrolean “Landesordnung” is undone by a new constitution
1545-1563 Council of Trient
1546 Repulsion of a Schmalkaldian alliance attack on Tyrol (Battles around the Ehrenberger file at Reutte)
1552 Elector Moritz von Sachsen invades Tyrol woth his army. (Emperor Karl V. flees from Innsbruck)
1564 new Habsburger country devision – Tyrol and further Austria become sovereign entities again; Tyrol becomes the major power in the large Austrian region.
1564-1595 Archduke Ferdinand II. (residence in Innsbruck since 1567)
1602-1618 Archduke Maximilian III. “Deutschmeister” 1618-1648 30 year war
1619-1632 Archduke Leopold V. 1632 Repulsion of an attack at the Ehrenberger defile
1632-1646 Rule of Claudia von Medici, widow of Archduke Leopold
1646-1662 Rule of archduke Ferdinand Karls 1652 Rights to Unterengadin are sold to Graubünden
1662-1665 Rule of archduke Sigmund Franz 1665 After the Tyrolean Habsburgians die out emperor Leopold I. takes the rule over Tyrol and further Austria. 1669 Foundation of the Innsbruck university.
1703 Foreign farmers that had settled in Tyrol are evicted.
1720 Pragmatic sanctions declare the indivisibility if Austria
1740-1790 Competences and jurisdiction of  Innsbruck's officials is regulated – Vorderösterreich (including Vorarlberg) is not governed by Innsbruck anymore. 1782 Vorarlberg is again connected to Tyrol
1790 Death of emperor Joseph II. - Tyrolean classes gain more rights again.
1796/97 Austria's war against the revolutionaries in France reaches Tyrol (Battle at Spinges)
1799 Second French invasion of Tyrol; high Vinschgau is razed, Glurns and Schluderns are raided. All armoury weapons are distributed to the Tyrolean farmes for defence. Only crossbows and armous are kept in the armouries and can still be seen today. 1803 Stift countries of Trient and Brixen unite with Tyrol (secularization of religious rulers)
1804/1806 Emperor Franz takes the titel of the emperor of Austria and abdicates the titel as emperor of the Roman-German emperor. 1805 Austria loses Tyrol and Vorarlberg to Bavaria (peace of Preßburg)
1808 The new centralistic Bavarian constitution demolishes class officials and rights.
1809 April: Austria wages ware against France and it's allies – Rise of Tyrol and it's first liberation Mai: Austrian victory over Napoleon at Aspern (21. and 22.) - Liberation of Tyrol after the invasion of French-Bavarian troops (Battle at Bergisel 25. and 29.) Juli: Defeat of the Austrian army at Wagran (5. and 6.) and ceasefire of Znaim – (12.) - General Lefebvre arrives with a large contingent in Tyrol- August: Victory of Tyroleans (i.e. at the Ehrenberger defile, the Lienzer defile, at Pontzlatzer bridge, and in the “Sachsenklemme”) - Third battle of Bergisel (13.) forces Lefebvre to retreat – Andreas Hofer's is in the Inssbrucker Hofburg. October: With the peace of Schönbrunn (14.) the emperor again gives up Tyrol and Vorarlberg – Occupation of the Inntal – peace appellation and offer of amnesty from Bavaria (25.) November: Defeat at Bergisel (1.)
1810 Andres Hofer is shot in Mantua (20. Feb.) - Napoleon divides Austria between Bavaria, France and Italy
1813/14 End of Napoleon's rule (Völkerschlacht at Leipzig 16.-19. October 1813, campaign in France) – Conquest of southern Tyrol, Negotiations with Bavaria, Reunification of Tyrol with Austria.

War events at and around Ehrenberg

1297

Conflict between the Duke of Bavaria and the bishop of Ausgburg. Bavaria wants to use the power vacuum which resulted from the fall of the duchy of Schwaben and annex Füssen which belongs to the bishop of Augsburg. It was in Tyrol's interest that Bavaria does not cross the river Lech and and supports the bishop. Ehrernberg is prepared for battle but the war does not start.

1312/13

Conquest of the castle in Loch which belonged to the Hoheneggern in Vils. Through Tyrols expansion into the north, conflict is stirred. The castle in Loch is conquered by the Tyrolean rules allowing to grow Tyrol right of the river Lechs up to Pinswang. It is not known how or if  Ehrenberg was involved in this conflict.

1406 and 1047

The battle with the Appenzellern starts with Duke Friedrich IV.'s support of the abbot of St. Gallon. The Appenzeller approach Tyrol and beat the Tyroleans at Zams but retreated shortly after. A part of the contingent used the far pass and the Tannheimer valley to go to Immenstadt. There has not been a military conflict because who would fight a retreating army?

1407

The Appenzeller again penetrate Tyrol's borders, this time through the Flexen pass into the Lechtal valley which then is occupied. The Swiss history speaks of the surrounding of Ehrenberg which has no proof. The battle of Martinau is probably just a legend.

1415

The confusing council of Constance Friedrich helps the alternative Pope to flee in Constance and is banished. The cities Kempten, Kaufbeuren, Memmingen and Augsburg send troops and mercenaries against Tyrol.
Ehrenberg is under siege from April 8. - 23. but the siege is aborted without success.

1423-1426

Fight with the Starkenbergern The conflict did not pan out in Ehrenberg. The conflict was partially about the ownership of Ehrenberg.

1525 Allgäuer peasant revolt

To stop the revolt from spreading further Ehrenberg was prepared for battle. Concessions for the peasants appeased tensions and the desire for a revolution was quenched.

1546 Schmalkaldian war

The Schmalkaldian mercenaries arrived on the 11. of July at defile shortly before midnight and conquered the defile without resistance because the local defenders did not resist. The defile was retaken through bombardment from the Falkenberg (today Hochschanz) on the 4. and 5. december 1546  which forced the Schmalkaldians to retreat.

1552 Ehrenberg and noble complot of 1552 and battle of Reutte.

The emperor's troops rested in the valley of Reutte without any protection. Kurfürst Moritz von Sachsen attacked them and defeated them decisively. A part of the army under command of duke Georg von Mecklenburg used the night to circle the defile and stood south of it on the 19. Mai 1552. Through the attack from both sides the defile was taken but the Kurfürst did not attack the castle.  On the 29. Mai 1552 the raiding troops retreated over Ehrenberg and Reutte.

1632 30 years war

In the war Füssen was was conquered by both sides of the war. On the 29. July 1632 the dukes Bernhard and Ernst von Weimar arrived at Reutte, razing the city. They scouted Ehrenberg but did not attack before being ordered back to other war theatres on the 31. July.

1703 Spanish inheritance war “Boarische Rummel”

The Bavarians started to siege Ehrenberg on the 1. Juli 1703 coming from the far pass. After the threat to raze Reutte again and pressure from the citizens Ehrenberg was turned over to Bavaria on the 6. August.

A siege to reconquer Ehrenberg was started on the 3. August 1703 through bombardment from the Schlosskopf by the country defenders. Ehrenberg was turned over on the 9. August 1703 when regular troops arrived on the scene.

1740/41 Austrian inheritance war

Even though the castle at Schlosskopf was build for this war, there were no battles. 1743 soldies stationed in Reutte attacked Hohenschwangau.

Napoleonian wars 1796 The fortifications of Gacht are enhanced (former Vorwerk) 1805 Rosschläg (former Vorwerk) is prepared for a siege 1945 Second world war

On the 29. April 1945 the defile was conquered. At the Katzenberg one US soldies died when scattered Nazi soldiers opened fire from Schlosskopf.

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